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Lecithin/Phosphatidyl Choline

What is it?
When medical researchers use the term “lecithin,” they are referring to a purified substance called phosphatidyl choline (PC) that belongs to a special category of fat-soluble substances called phospholipids.

Phospholipids are essential components of cell membranes. Supplements labeled as “lecithin” usually contain 10–20% PC. Relatively pure PC supplements are generally labeled as “phosphatidylcholine.” PC best duplicates supplements used in medical research.

Choline by itself (without the “phosphatidyl” group) is also available in foods and supplements. In high amounts, however, pure choline can make people smell like fish, so it’s rarely used, except in the small amounts found in multivitamin supplements.

What does lecithin/phosphatidyl choline do?

PC acts as a supplier of choline, which is needed for cell membrane integrity and to facilitate the movement of fats in and out of cells. It is also a component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and is needed for normal brain functioning, particularly in infants. Although the human body can synthesize choline, additional amounts from the diet are considered essential under certain circumstances. For this reason, PC has been used in a number of preliminary studies for a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, though not every study suggests that supplemental choline is capable of reaching the brain.1 Choline participates in many functions involving cellular components called phospholipids.

Where is lecithin/phosphatidyl choline found?

Choline, the major constituent of PC, is found in soybeans, liver, oatmeal, cabbage, and cauliflower. Soybeans, egg yolks, meat, and some vegetables contain PC. Lecithin (containing 10–20% PC) is added to many processed foods in small amounts for the purpose of maintaining texture consistency.

Phosphatidyl choline has been used in connection with the following conditions (refer to the individual health concern for complete information):


Rating Health Concerns

High homocysteine
Liver cirrhosis
Tardive dyskinesia


Alzheimer’s disease
Bipolar disorder
Gallbladder attacks
High cholesterol

Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support and/or minimal health benefit.


Who is likely to be deficient of lecithin/phosphatidyl choline?

Although choline deficiencies have been artificially induced in people, little is known about human deficiency in the real world.

How much lecithin/phosphatidyl choline is usually taken?

Small amounts of choline are present in many B-complex and multivitamin supplements.

Are there any side effects or interactions with lecithin/phosphatidyl choline?

With several grams of choline per day, some people will experience abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, or nausea. Supplementing choline in large amounts (over 1,000 mg per day) can lead to a fishy body odor. PC does not have this effect. Depression has been reported as a side effect in people taking large amounts of choline, such as 9 grams per day.

The body uses both PC and pantothenic acid to form acetylcholine.

At the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions with Lecithin/Phosphatidylcholine/Choline.